Wednesday, December 24, 2008

JNDI lookup on Tomcat and JBoss using Spring

Unfortunately Java EE specs does not specify any standard way of JNDI naming conventions, hence most of the application servers have their own way of JNDI naming. On specifying a Datasource's JNDI name as 'jdbc/myDatasource', Tomcat (6) binds that as 'java:/comp/env/jdbc/myDatasource' while JBoss (5) binds as 'java:/jdbc/myDatasource'. So if one wants to deploy the application on multiple application servers then at least JNDI names has to be changed. I was wondering if Spring Framework has a solution for this, so tried to do lookup using <jee:jndi-lookup ...> as shown below-

<jee:jndi-lookup id="dataSource" jndi-name="jdbc/myDatasource" resource-ref="true"/>
it works well with Tomcat but fails on JBoss. Reason, the JNDI prefix is hard coded in Spring to 'java:comp/env/'.
package org.springframework.jndi;

public abstract class JndiLocatorSupport extends JndiAccessor {

    /** JNDI prefix used in a J2EE container */
    public static final String CONTAINER_PREFIX = "java:comp/env/";
    . . .
So it is obvious that it will fail on JBoss. To overcome this limitation, I came up with following solution-
public final class ServiceLocator {

    private static final Map<String, Object> services = new ConcurrentHashMap<String, Object>();

    private static ServiceLocator instance;

    private static Context context;

    static {
        try {
            Context initContext = new InitialContext();
            if (ServerDetector.isJBoss()) {
                context = (Context) initContext.lookup("java:");
            } else if (ServerDetector.isTomcat()) {
                context = (Context) initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env");
            } else {
                context = initContext;
                // or add more 'else if' blocks according to servers to be supported
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(e);

    public DataSource getDataSource(String name) throws Exception {
        if (name == null || name.length() <= 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("name");

        if (services.containsKey(name))
            return (DataSource) services.get(name);

        DataSource ds = (DataSource) context.lookup(name);

        services.put(name, ds);
        return ds;

Here ServerDetector is a good utility class I found in Liferay code base. Now ServiceLocator takes care of application server specific JNDI prefixes and avoids hassles of changing configuration or code to deploy it on a specific server. In case of Spring instead of using <jee:jndi-lookup ...> one can do the lookup using above-mentioned ServiceLocator as shown below-
    <bean id="serviceLocator" class="com.vinodsingh.ServiceLocator" factory-method="getInstance" />

    <bean id="dataSource" factory-bean="serviceLocator" factory-method="getDataSource">
        <constructor-arg value="jdbc/myDatasource" />
Now entire code (including configuration files) becomes truly portable, at least for JNDI lookups :-)